Key Terms

XAWAALADA CASRIGA AH: ERAYADA AASAASIGA AH

QAYBTA 1AAD: DHAQDHAQAAQA XAWAALADA

Xawaalada

Hay’adda caalamiga ah ee Lacagta aduunka wuxuu ku qeexayaa xawilaadda in ay tahay daqliga qoyska loo soo diray ama ay siiyeen shaqsiyaad u soo haajiray meel dhaqaalo cusub leh noqdayna kuwo dagan meelahaas dhaqaalaha cusub leh. Sidaas daraadeed Xawaalada waxaa ka mid ah lacagta iiyo waxyaabaha aan lacagta ahayn ee la soo diro/laga qaato wadooyin rasmi ah ama aan rasmi ahayn.

Diraha

badanaa saaxiib ama xubin qoyska ayaa lacagta u dira qaataha si uugu taageero kharashka nolosha ama kharashyada kale.

Qaataha

Qofka qaadana lacagta la soo diray. Macnaha buuggaan loogu qeexay qaatuhu waa qof xqaxooti ah ama qof dib ugu soo laabtay dalka.

Shirkaddaha adeegga xawaalada

Bixiyaha adeega lacagta oo sahlaya lacagaha xawaaladda ee u dhaxeeya diraha iyo qaataha. Waxay sidan ku sameeyaan dukumentiyo rasmi ah si ay u bixiyaan adeegyo xawilaad lacag oo la iskaga gudbiyo xudduuda oo ay mid yihiin bangiyada ganacsiga.

Xawaalada rasmiga ah

waxaa loola jeedaa xawaaladaha loo soo diro waddan iyada oo loo marayo wado sharci ah ayad oo loo marayo wadada sharciga ah ayada oo laga diiwaangeliyo nidaamyada maaliyadeed.

Xawilaada aan rasmiga ahayn

waxaa loola jeedaa xawaaladaha la xawilay iyada oo loo marayo waddooyinka gaarka ah ama kuwa aan la ogoleyn. Xawaaladaha noocaan ah waxay badanaa ku salaysan yihiin aaminaad waxayna ka dhacaan si ka baxsan nidaamka maaliyadeed ee la ilaaliyo.

Section 2: Digital remittance ecosystem

Xawaalada Casriga ah

lacagta waxay ku diraan nidaamka qaabaysan oo elektarooniga ah. Waxay u sahlanaataa in lacag loo wareejiyo si fudud, dhaqso ah iyo in lacagta laga diri karo meelo fog. Xawaalada Casriga ah waxay taageertaa macaamiladaha sida amaano dhigashada tooska ah, Kaarta lacagta horumarkiska ah (Debit Card) iyo Kaarka lacagta deynta (Credit card), bixinta biilasha ee Online-ka ah iyo wareejinta lacagaha ee bangiyadda. ayada oo ay ku xirantahay shirkaddaha adeegga xawaalada, isticmaalida application-ka telefanka ama bogga internet-ka wuxuu si toos ah u sahlayaa in si toos ah wax loogu wareejiyo bangiyadda, Kaarta lacagta horumarkiska ah (Debit Card) iyo Kaarka lacagta deynta (Credit card).

Lacagta Moobaylka

Waa tiknoolojiyad fududeynaysa isticmaalka moobilka in ay lacag isku xawilaan dhowr xisaabood. Adeegyadda lacagta moobaylka waxay gaar ahaan bixiyaan adeegyadaan soo socda:

  • Xawilaada lacagaha gudaha ah iyo kuwa dibada. Xawilaadda lacagaha gudaha waxay ka koobantahay dirida/qaadashda lacagta laga qaadanayo hal meel oo ka mid ah meel gaar ah oo ku taala isla waddanka halka xawilaadda caalamiga ahi tahay mid xudduuda la iskaga gudbiyo. Bixinta moobaylka oo ka midka tahay bixinta biilasha: waxay ka koobantaa isticmaalida telefoonka moobaylka ah/ aaladda si loogu fududeeyo dhaqdhaqaaqa lacageed/ ku iibsiga badeecada/adeega la bixinayo sida korontada, kaarka hadalka, biilasha isbitaalka iwm.
  • Lacag bixinta baaxadda leh: lacag bixinta baaxadda waa hab degdeg ah oo loogu wareejiyo / lacag loo diro / lacag qaatayaal badan, inta badan la isticmaalo marka la bixinayo mushaharka, munaafacaadka shaqaalaha ama lacag siinta adeeg bixiyeyaasha
  • Lacag bixinta ganacsiga: bixinta ganacsatada jumladaha wax kuu iibiya ama kuwa sii qaybiyeyaasha kuwaas oo si baaxad leh u gata badeecada oo dib ugu qeybiya tafaariiqleyda.

Adeegyadda keydka

“Dhaqan ahaan, kaydinta lacagta macaamiisha ee bangiga gudihiisa ugu jirta koonto lacag dulsaar leh. Waxaa mar mar kii isticmaalaa in si dabacsan loogu timaamo meel kasta loo lacag lagu keydiyo, sida haraaga lacag ku jirta keyd telefoonka gacanta oo telektoronij ah.”

Amaah

“Lacag ama shay la deymiyo, badanaa oo la fahamsan yahay in amaahda dib loo bixin doono, inta badan dulsaar ay leedahay.”

Caymis

Nidaamka gudbinta khatarta ah ee halka qofku u leeyahay difaac dhaqaale oo ka dhan ah qasaarada ama waxyeellada oo uu ka helo shirkadda caymiska,sida in la daboolo kharashyada caafimaadka.

Kaarka hadalka

“Iibsashada kaarka hadalka ee telefoonka gacanta waqtiga, badanaa laga maalgeliyo xisaabta lacagta telefoonka gacanta.”

Bixinta biilasha adeegga

“Sameynta lacag bixinta adeegga soo noqnoqonaya, oo loo sameeyo si shaqsi aahana (“fool ka fool”), ama meel fog laga sameeyo”

Innovators

Includes private operators and developers in the tech industry who develop new ideas/strategies/technologies to address/improve various components of money transfer so as to improve access, utilization and satisfy user needs.

CSOs/NGOs

These are voluntary, not-for-profit entities that work within the social sphere, have direct ties to communities in which they work and advocate for community interests. These include village associations, community based organisations and non-governmental organisations.

Governments

The administrative component (national or local government units) in the remittance ecosystem that is in charge of developing and administering public policy i.e. policy guidelines that regulate money transfer and operation of different players within the sector.

Private sector

Part of the remittance landscape that is run by individuals, private companies, banks, manufacturers, fintech companies and RSPs that provide remittance services with the intention of making profit.

Beneficiaries

These are remittance receiving individuals/households or ecosystem system service users.

Section 3: Types of services provided by digital remittance channels

Sarifka lacagaha qalaad

Sicirka sarifka waxaa lagu qeexay in uu yahay qiimaha wadan lacagtiis ay ugu dhiganto lacag kale. Sicirka sarifka ayaa loo qori karaa celceliska qiimaha mudada wakhti ah sicirka uu marayo dhamaadka mudada.

Airtime top-up

“Purchase of airtime via mobile money, usually funded from a mobile money account”

Bill payment

“Making a payment for a recurring service, either in person (“face to face”), or remotely.”

Credit/loans

“Money or an object that is lent, usually with the understanding that the loan will be paid back, usually with interest.”

Savings

“Traditionally, the storage of a customer’s money by a bank within an interest-bearing account. It is sometimes used more loosely to describe any store of money, such as the balance of electronic money within a mobile wallet.”

Section 4: Cost of sending and receiving digital remittance

Waddada xawaaladaha

Xidhiidhka juqraafiyeed ee u dhexeeya waddan lacagta laga soo diro iyo waddanka lacagta loo diro ayaa ka koobma waddada xawaaladaha. Tusaale ahaan, ingiriiska iyo maraykan ayaa ah labada waddo ee ugu saraysa ee lacagaha usoo maraan Kenya iyo Soomaaliya markii lagu saleeyo isku celcelis xawaaladaha lacagta.

Wareejinta Bangi uu bangi kale u wareejiyo

Lacagta waxaa loo wareejin karaa laba xisaabood oo bangi ah oo laga leeyahay hal bangi (bangiga gudihiisa lagu soo wareejiyo) ama laba xisaabood oo bangi oo laga leeyahay labo bangi oo kala duwan (Wareejin u dhaxaysa labo bangi). Inta badan wareejinta lacagaha caalamiga ah waa kuwo u dhexeeya labo bangi oo kala duwan. Wareejinta Bangi-ka -Bangi waxaa lagu fududeyn karaa macaamilka xisaabiha bangiga ama “Wire Transfer” oo ah sida ugu dhaqsiyaha badan labo bangilacag iskugu dirto.

Kaarka Debit/Credit Card-ka ku socoda Keyda Moobaylka

Waxaa jira adeeg bixiyeyaal xawaaladeed kuwaas oo ogolaadaan in macaamiishoodu ay lacagta wareejin karaan ayagoo isticmaalaya Credit ama Debit Card-ka. Macaamilada waxa lagu samayn karaa koontada Bangiga ee diraha: ayadoo leh 3 ikhtiyaar i) Online-ahaan, ii) teleefanka iyo iii) adigoo booqanaya laanta.

Kaarka Debit/Credit Card-ka ku socoda Koontada Bangiga

Wareejin Xawilaadeed ayaa si toos ah looga samayn karaa Credit Card-ka oo ku socota koontada Bangiga. Tan xataa waxay leedahay saddex ikhtiyaar i) Online-ahaan, ii) Teleefoonka, iii) adoo booqda laanta. Diraha wuxuu keliyoo u baahanyahay in uu kaarka ku xiro koontada Bangiga.

Wakiil (Kaash) ku socda Wakiil kale (Kaash)

Nidaamka Macaamilka ee uu ka midka yahay booqashada wakiilka shirkadda adeega xawaalada adoo la tagaya dukukmetiyadda aqoonsiga si aad lacag ugu dirto wakiil kale ama aad ka qaadato lacag lagu soo diray wakiilka shirkadda adeegga xawaalada. Wakiiladda waa laamo iyo wakiil hoosaadyo hoos taga xaafiiska shirkadda adeega xawaalada ee weyn oo bixiya adeega macaamilka: Macaamiishu wey dhigan karaan, la bixi karaan ama wey xawili karaan.

Wakiil (Lacag) ku socota Keydka moobaylka

waxaa ka mid ah booqashada wakiilka shirakadda adeega xawalada ee kuugu dhow si shaqsi ahaan ah, buuqinta foomka ama siinta wakiilka dukumentiyadda aqoonsiga iyo nambarka telefanka qaataha. Shirkadda adeega xawaaladaha intooda badan waxay bixiyaan nambarka tixraaca uu isticmaali doono qaataha in uu kula baxo.

Keyda moobaylka oo u diraya keyd moobayl

Dirida lacagta ee si toos ah loogu diro keydka telefoonka gacanta ayadoo lacaga diraayo keyd telefoonka kale ee gacanta.

Types of remittance costs and their impact

Sicirka sarifka

OECD waxay ku qeexaysaa sicirka sarifka in uu yahay “qiimaha ay lacag hal wadan yeelayahay ay u dhiganta lacag kale” taasi waa qiimaha hal lacag markii lala bardhigo lacag qalaad. Si dudud hadaan u sheegno waxaa lagu macnayn karaa beeca laga bixiyo lacag qalaad. Sicirka ( Qiimaha) waa aad ugu nuqul isbeddel sidaas daraadeed si joogto ah ayuu isku beddelaa.

International money transfer

International money transfer are subjected to daily exchange rates. Depending on the fluctuation (exchange rate behavior), the sender or receiver can either save money or lose a fraction from the transaction. The knowledge on how exchange rates affect transactions is important for a user to ensure he/ she does not opt for a money transfer that charges high margins on transfers.

Khidmada dirida

Shirkaddaha adeegga xawaalada badankood waxay qaadaan lacag qaddar go’an ah oo ay lacagta ugu xawilaan qof lacag u diraya qof kale. Khidmaddu waxay kuxirantahay adeeg bixiyaha xawilaadaha uu qofku lacagta ka dirsanayo iyo sidoo kale lacagta la soo diro iyo lacagta lagu soo diro lacagta. Khidmaduhu qaar waxay ku xiranyihiin qaabka uu qofku lacagta u dirayo taasi oo ah in uu ka dirayo koontada Bangiga, keydla telefoonka gacanta, Debir kaarka ama credit Card-ka.

Khidmada la bixida

Khidmada laga qaado qaadashada xawaalada dibada ka timaada. Waxaa lagu oo oogaa marka ay lacagta kala baxayaan koontada Bangiga, keyda telefoonka gacanta, ATM-ka ama Wakiilka. Qarashaad la xiriira ayaa sidoo kale la geli karaa marka uu qof iibsado badeeco ama adeeg asagoo isticmaalaya debit kaar ama Credit Card-ka ama keyda telefoonka gacanta.

Sicirka dulsaarka

Khidmadda lagu soo oogo qofka amaahda/keydinta lacagta. Waxaa caadi ahaan loo muujiyaa boqolkiiba inta wadarta amaahda lagu amaahdo ama la keydsado. Tusaale ahaan, markuu qof lacag keydsado, asaga/iyada waxay heleysaa lacagta dheeri ah oo siyaado ka ah lacagtii rasumaalka ahayd. Ayadoo isla nidaamka la marayo, lacagta dib loo soo celinayo ayaa ka badan lacagta la amaahday, ayadoo lagu salaynayo sicirka dulsaarka ee lagu heshiiyey.

Section 5: Costs of sending and receiving digital
remittance

Fees structure

How transactions costs are calculated by RSPs. This can include a range of factors from RSP service charges to currency exchange rates.

Exchange rates

Defined as the price of one country’s’ currency in relation to another. Exchange rates may be expressed as the average rate for a period of time or as the rate at the end of the period.

Transfer speed

The time between which money sent by the remitter is received by the beneficiary.

Products and services offered

The range of remittance of other financial services provided by the RSP

Transfer methods/ Payment options

The remittance channel used to transfer money between sender and receiver, for example via an online credit card payment to a mobile money wallet.